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Participants will identify the key components of successful classroom management based upon Marzano's Classroom. Management that Works and collaborate. Have extra supplies available at a location in the classroom where students who . Classroom Management that Works: Research Based Strategies for Every. A Handbook for Classroom Management That Works. by Robert J. Marzano, Barbara B. Gaddy, Maria C. Foseid, Mark P. Foseid and Jana S. Marzano. Select a.
But research also indicates that rules and procedures should not simply be imposed on students; they should be created with stu- dents. When students are involved in this process, they are more likely to make classroom rules and procedures their own.
This section highlights six areas to consider for classroom rules and procedures: It is counterproductive to set rules and procedures in all of these areas. Inundating students with rules and procedures for every aspect of the classroom clearly is not a good idea. Rules, particularly for young students, should be few—for most grades, no more than eight.
In addition, rules should be worded succinctly, making them easier for students to recall and therefore follow. Each of these modules offers strategies, examples, and practical sugges- tions for putting these ideas into practice, as well as opportunities for you to reflect on your use of the guidance provided. We encourage you to use the suggestions offered here—along with Classroom Management That Works and other resources—to set appropriate rules and procedures for your classroom and your unique group of students.
Then write your answers to the following questions in the space provided. Your responses will give you a basis for comparison as you read about the strategies recommended in these modules.
If so, how? What are some creative, interesting ways to engage them in the process? What general rules or expectations for behavior did students seem to be following? What are your thoughts about how to create the right balance? What are some other ways? As friends and colleagues, for example, we expect consideration and respect from one another. As neighbors we share expectations about such things as noise and how and where we park our cars. Generally we try to observe other rules of common courtesy.
In many situations, the societal rules for our interactions with one another are unspoken. Whether spoken or unspoken, one easy way to think about overall expectations for behavior is the golden rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Rules and procedures for general classroom behavior deal with the broad areas of respect and courtesy as well as more specific issues, such as listening to the teacher or to classmates who are speaking, and being in the assigned seat when class begins.
In some classrooms, teachers involve students in establishing overall class rules for conduct. Involving students helps to build their download-in and responsibility for the overall environment of the classroom. RecommendationsforClassroomPractice Establishing rules and shared expectations for general conduct helps to lay a solid foundation for effective classroom management.
Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students
In this module, we discuss the following specific strategies: These reminders, which students can easily refer to throughout the day, help students adhere to shared rules. WritingaClassPledgeorPromise Many effective teachers involve students in writing a class pledge or promise.
This strategy helps create a shared sense of responsibility for the classroom, respect for self and others, and an overall culture of learning. Asking students to sign the pledge further reinforces student download-in and responsibility. A class promise can also be Module 1 General Classroom Behavior We understand that everyone makes mistakes, that we stand up for ourselves and others, and that when someone asks us to stop, we stop.
This is who we are even when no one is watching. My School Pledge I pledge today to do my best In reading, math, and all of the rest. I promise to obey the rules In my class and in my school. I am here to learn all I can, To try my best and be all I am. EstablishingOverallClassroomRulesandProcedures In addition to—or in place of—a class pledge or promise, some teachers establish a few briefly worded rules for general classroom behavior.
5 Principles of Outstanding Classroom Management
In general, classroom rules, such as those in Figure 1. Many teachers engage their students in establishing overall classroom rules and proce- dures.
For example, you might facilitate a dis- cussion at the beginning of the year about when it is appropriate and not appropriate for students to leave their seats, emphasizing the importance of demonstrating politeness and respect for others.
Such a discussion typically involves identifying expected behaviors and procedures for using the pencil sharpener, get- ting resources and materials from central places in the room, returning materials to shelves, and conferring with other students sitting across the room.
Although there are, of course, some com- mon overall rules that elementary and second- ary teachers should establish, rules also vary depending on the age and grade level of stu- dents.
For example, many elementary school teachers assign specific seats for their students at the beginning of the year. At the secondary level, however, teachers frequently let stu- dents sit where they choose as long as their seating choice does not interfere with their learning. Allowing students to choose their own place in the classroom is a sign of respect for their maturity.
Students also appreciate this approach, which helps build their support for rules and procedures set by the teacher. In addition to general rules for classroom behavior, some teachers create graphics or posters that emphasize the importance of char- acter or specific personal characteristics, such as honesty, integrity, or respect, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. A year full of learning while we become friends. Our friendship will grow with each passing day. Be safe.
Be kind. Be polite. Classroom Rules 2nd Grade 1. Listen carefully. Follow directions. Work quietly. Do not disturb others who are working.
Respect others. Be kind with your words and actions. Respect school and personal property. Work and play safely. Classroom Rules 3rd Grade 1. Be kind and respectful to others and yourself. Listen when others are speaking. Use your manners and be safe.
Keep your hands and mean words to yourself. Have fun. Our Basic Rights 1. All students have the right to be treated with respect. All teachers have the right to be treated with respect. Everyone has the right to feel safe in the teaching and learning environment. Rules for Classroom Behavior Secondary 1. Respect one another at all times. Maintain eye contact when communicating with others or when someone—a teacher or a classmate—is speaking.
Only one person speaks at a time. Making Our Classroom a Place for Learning 1. Respect others—when someone is speaking, listen. Keep hands, feet, objects, and unkind remarks to yourself. Bring required materials to class.
Ideas from the Field
Be in your seat when the bell rings. Raise your hand. Remember the rules we set for leaving your seat or leaving the classroom: Maintain respect and quiet, think before you act, and minimize disruptions to the learning process. Here are some examples: Stu- dents raise their hands as they stop talking and look at you. Put your hands over your ears to signal that group work has become too noisy, or quietly walk over and flick the overhead lights on and off.
A student holds up a book or a pencil to signal that he needs help—for example, during study time. One common situation in which the raised- hand technique can be used is the school assembly. The principal raises her hand to quiet the room; teachers encourage quiet by being the first to raise their hands, stop talking, and turn their attention to the principal.
Used consistently, this approach catches on and the room becomes quiet more quickly. This technique is a respectful way to bring a large group to order without raising voices. In addition to broad rules for conduct, many teachers also set rules for more specific behaviors, such as listening, or for bully-proofing the classroom.
As with other rules, you should post these in a visible place in the classroom and consider adding symbols or drawings to make them easier for students to remember, as shown in Figures 1.
You can do this in a vari- ety of ways. Here are some specific suggestions: We will not bully other students. We will help others who are being bullied by speaking out and by getting adult help. We will use extra effort to include all students in activities at our school. If someone is being bullied, step in and help!
Speak up or walk away. Maintain a good sense of humor and keep the situation light! Stay away from negative situations. At the same time, take responsibility for your own actions. Beginning and ending well—and consistently—sets the tone for the classroom and helps students know what to expect. It is one way that you can reinforce a sense of structure and consistency and commu- nicate that the classroom is a place for learning.
RecommendationsforClassroomPractice Like other rules and procedures, the specific ways in which teachers start and end the day or period vary.
Regardless of the specific routines established, however, whether at an elementary school, middle school, or high school, classroom management is enhanced when teachers estab- lish routines that communicate order and learn- ing at the same time.
In particular, we recommend the following strategies: Many sponge activities are designed to help students review their prior learning or activate background knowledge as they learn something new. Many online and print resources provide ideas for sponge activities.
Depending on The sponge activities are as varied as teachers themselves. However, the activities must be meaningful and tied to specific learning goals for students. EstablishingSharedActivities ThatReinforceClassUnity Many teachers, particularly teachers of ele- mentary students, begin the day with activities that establish and reinforce a sense of commu- nity and unity among students. This might also be the time to recognize particular achievements of the class as a whole or to announce class activities, such as a family potluck or an upcoming schoolwide science fair.
Figure 2. EndingwithActivitiesThatReinforce LearningandDiscipline Like activities for beginning the day or the class period, ending activities—when used consistently—help establish the classroom as a predictable environment for learning. There are a variety of ways to end the day or period, such as homework assignments, answering questions, reflecting on learning, or reminding students about putting away supplies.
Teachers of young students, in particular, can use the time to reinforce good habits, such as cleaning up after oneself and storing materials in their proper place. Teachers also frequently use this time to review homework assignments.
To rein- force good study habits, you might create a list of brief homework reminders or guidelines, such as those shown in Figure 2. One common approach is to ask stu- dents to do a reflection writing activity in a journal, for example about what they learned that day, then pair up and share what they wrote. One way to extend this process is to ask the pair to write key points they learned that day on a note card and turn it in to you. Stu- dents also might jot down questions or short notes about things they found confusing or unclear, or something they would like to learn about in more depth.
Using the restroom. Going to the library, computer cen- ter, or resource room. Moving from one class to another or from one learning center to another. Going outside for recess. The list of things that can and do interrupt time for learning is long. Regardless of the grade level, every teacher needs to deal with certain interruptions and transitions—both within the classroom and from the classroom to other areas of the school or school grounds.
For students who have difficulty focusing, such interruptions can be especially distracting and translate into even less learning time if not managed well. Because many students appear to have difficulties with attention and focus, the need to effectively manage interruptions is pressing. RecommendationsforClassroomPractice Establishing rules and procedures for transi- tions and interruptions is an important aspect of classroom management.
Specifically, we sug- gest the following strategies: By creating rules and procedures, sharing these with students, making sure they under- stand them, and asking for their feedback when appropriate , you can prevent unneces- sary delays and problems.
In some situations, the rules students must follow might be very specific, such as the bathroom rules listed in Figure 3.
Simi- larly, you may find that students need a great deal of structure when moving from one learn- ing center to the next. Figure 3. Rules and procedures can be very simple and straightforward—perhaps as simple as a particular comment you make or a signal you give just before a break in the learning process.
One way to ensure that students auto- matically know and recall what to do is to give them opportunities to practice routines and to take time to reinforce expected behav- iors. In fact, the point of fire and disaster drills is to make routines automatic, which is criti- cally important if a true disaster situation were to arise. The same can be said for other, less urgent situations. One effective strategy, particularly at the beginning of the year, is to role-play various situations.
This can be a useful process for many things that occur in the classroom, from tardiness to unexpected classroom visitors. One secondary teacher, for example, asks students to practice being in their seats before the bell rings to work on the sponge activity written on the board. They also prac- tice what to do and how to act if they arrive late to class. The student completes the Figure 3. No talking in the bathroom. You have only three minutes for bathroom time.
Go to the bathroom only during group bathroom breaks, recess, or independent work time. We promise to follow the bathroom rules. Each student in the class signs the list. Now we will find out which center to go to next. Role playing these types of situations can be effective but also lighthearted.
For example, in addition to asking students to practice posi- tive, workable behaviors when arriving to class, this teacher asks a student to volunteer to demonstrate arriving in a way that does not help create a useful learning environment.
Talking about how to act and how not to act is useful, but seeing the behaviors in action makes them more real. EngagingStudentsasLeadersDuring TransitionsandInterruptions One way to ease transition times and build student download-in is to have students take leader- ship roles. For example, you might assign a student—or ask for a student to volunteer—to serve as the line leader as the class lines up to go to recess, walks quietly down the hall, and walks outside to the playground.
Another stu- dent might be the class leader for lunch breaks. Students also might serve in other roles, such as classroom greeter for expected visitors; in this case, the student would quietly meet the visitor at the classroom door, welcome him or her, and show the visitor to an appropriate seat.
Student leadership roles such as these can be rotated from day to day or week to week to give more students an opportunity to share responsibility for the management of the classroom. A chart like the one shown in Figure 3. Many teachers also set a few simple rules for materials that students should bring to class each day. Figure 4. You can keep these materials, which stu- dents may borrow if they forget to bring The advantage of this approach is that it supports the learning process and, at the sec- ondary level, is one less reason for students to go to their lockers during the day.
The disad- vantage is that students may forget to return the materials they borrowed.
EstablishingRulesandProceduresfor SpecialtyMaterialsandEquipment Most classrooms have materials and equipment that require special or careful handling. For example, many classrooms have one or more computers, software, and perhaps a printer; others have maps, globes, scales, and other specialty equipment; and art and science classes are filled with special sup- plies and tools.
Given the diverse array of classroom resources and equipment, this section does not include detailed suggestions for rules and proce- dures regarding the handling and storage of spe- cific items. You yourself must identify the items that need special handling, set appropriate rules, and ensure that students understand them. This can be as straightforward as establishing a rule for young students that they may use scissors only while Figure 4.
For other materials and equipment, such as chemicals or specialized art equip- ment, more detailed rules and procedures may be in order. By working with their peers, students can learn to express themselves clearly, to lis- ten, to compromise, to value others, and to take leadership roles.
For group work to be most useful, however, teachers should establish a foundation of rules and procedures and rein- force them throughout the year. RecommendationsforClassroomPractice Setting and reinforcing expectations for group work can greatly contribute to a better man- aged classroom.
Who forgot to push their chairs in? When he says the magic word, students move. Dur- ing the week, students accumulate points; those with the most points by Wednesday of each week get to play the classroom game for example, Bingo that day during free time.
You might put a list of preas- signed groups on an overhead image or post it on the wall. Module 5 Group Work One teacher, for example, seats students in pairs in four rows, each row beginning at the front of the room and ending in the back.
To illustrate, assume each row comprises four pairs of students. The advantage to this approach is that it mini- mizes classroom disruption; the teacher also can easily monitor and maintain groups by weaving between the rows.
SettingExpectationsforGroupBehaviorandFocus Another area worth attending to is expecta- tions for how students will interact as they work together. These expectations can be writ- ten specifically for group work, like those in Figure 5. Either way, developing a few straightforward guide- lines helps create a culture of mutual respect. High school or upper middle school teach- ers, in particular, might also write objectives for behavior and then give students feedback about behavior when they provide feedback on aca- demic objectives.
For example, a teacher and a student might determine that the student needs support during group work in dealing with stu- dents who express differing opinions. For example, if the learning format is direct instruction, students might rate themselves on particular behavioral objectives using the self- assessment scale shown in Figure 5.
If the learning format is working with a partner, students might use the self-assessment scale shown in Figure 5. Figures 5.
Cooperative Group Rules 1. Take turns talking quietly. Help each other when asked. Stay together until everyone is finished. Talk about how you worked well together and how you might improve. Maintain eye contact with the person speaking a classmate or the teacher. Raise your hand when you wish to ask a question or make a comment.
Be open-minded about comments and questions from peers. Stay focused on the learning activity.
Classroom Management Books
If you have thoughts that are not related to the learning activity, notice them, but then put them aside until the class period is over. This behavior is known as bracketing.
Self-Assessment Rate your performance on the behavioral objectives. Note that the scale ranges from 1 not there yet to 4 I behaved at top performance. Briefly describe why you think the rating is an accurate assessment of your behavior. Then discuss your self-assessment with your teacher. Stay on task. Use 6-inch voices. Make sure that everyone participates. One person should not dominate the conversation or take charge of completing the task on his or her own. Use a quiet voice.
If group roles have been assigned, support one another in your assigned roles. For example, assist the leader, timekeeper, recorder, and reporter by cooperating and participating in the group task. Be open-minded. Raise hand to get permission to talk with teacher or classmates. Contribute to a quiet atmosphere for learning. Maintain focus on the task at hand.
Avoid side conversations. Another key to effective group work is to make sure students are clear about the purpose of working in groups. Students and teachers alike will find that students bring their differing strengths, per- spectives, and personalities to the role of group leader.
This approach can be as valuable to those students who are not serving as group leaders as it is to those who are. By observing how different students handle this responsibil- ity, students will see that there is more than one way to be an effective leader and perhaps be inspired to take on a leadership role themselves.
Similarly, students need opportuni- ties to work alone, whether writing, reading, completing assignments, taking tests, or simply thinking about how to approach a specific task. The common denominator of seat work and teacher-led activities is that, generally speaking, students remain in their seats. RecommendationsforClassroomPractice We recommend that teachers in both elemen- tary and secondary classrooms use the follow- ing strategies: A common approach is to create a list of fun but worthwhile activities for students to select from when they have completed their primary work.
You might also offer some kind of reward for additional work that students complete beyond what is required. Figures 6. One way to do this is to set up a creative, fun, and engaging classroom library where stu- dents can go whenever they have completed the primary task of the day. Quick Polls. Figure 6. OK, and Annie and Nicholas.
Select readers and information-presenters during group discussions with a variation on drawing straws. Using col- ored magic markers, color code one end of a set of Popsicle sticks—one color for readers, another color for information presenters. The advantage of this approach is that the randomness of the selection process keeps students involved in both the discussion and their role as presenters. Student Assistants.
Ask students to come up and point to correct answers on an overhead image. The advantage of this approach is that students typically are eager to do this, and it allows you to conduct a discussion from some place other than the front of the room.
Should you approach rules and procedures differently with this class? If so, why and how? If not, why not? But now you need to find ways to reinforce these expectations and develop student download-in. What are some of the things you might do? What is one strategy you might use to get them on task immediately?
What are some strategies you might use to practice this routine and to ease the transition? One of your closest friends, a first-year high school teacher, wants your advice about setting rules and procedures. What should you tell him?
And how might the expectations you set for your stu- dents differ from those he might set for his students? Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 I ensure that students are aware of and clear about the rules and procedures for our classroom. Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 I ensure that students understand the reasons and rationale behind the rules and procedures established for our classroom.
Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 The rules and procedures I have established contribute to a better managed and more effective learning environment in the classroom. Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 The strategies I use to reinforce rules and procedures are effective. Not at all To a great extent 0 1 2 3 4 The teachers were informed that a trained data collector would observe their instruction daily for up to three months in order to validate the direct observation system and that, based on their data and need, professional development would be provided in the fall.
Direct Observation Procedures We collected minute direct observations of each teacher during large group instruction, defined as the teacher leading direct instruction for all students in a class at the same time. Each teacher was asked to identify a minute time period when she consistently provided large group instruction in either reading or mathematics. A trained graduate research assistant or hired hourly data collector undergraduate or graduate student would stand near the rear of the classroom and quietly observe the teacher without distracting from instruction.
MOOSES is a direct observation system for collecting real-time event recordings of teacher and student behaviors on either a frequency or duration scale. All data collectors received a two-hour group didactic training and conducted periodic observer drift checks to ensure the accuracy of the observations. The two observers stood near each other but did not talk or interact during the observation except to start the observation at the exact same time.
Across all classroom management skills and student behaviors, the average IOA was Next, we divided all four classroom management skill values by the number of minutes the teacher was observed i. We followed the same procedure to calculate the rate of disruptive behavior per minute. We used three-level models to estimate student behavior nested in time repeated observations nested in teacher. First, we estimated a fully unconditional null model to calculate the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC for time and teacher.
The ICC is the percentage of variance in student behavior attributable to time and to teacher. All analyses were conducted in the lmer4 package Bates et al. Study Results Descriptive Statistics Prior to modeling, we examined the descriptive statistics for the full sample and for each teacher across all classroom management skills and student behaviors see Table 1.
The average rate of BSP per minute was 0. Again, there was significant variability among teachers, evidenced by the standard deviation value greater than the sample average. Lastly, the average rate of prompting for expectations, including pre-corrections, was 0. Similar to the teacher classroom management skills, there were large differences between teachers in the average percentage of time students were academically engaged.
Disruptive behavior was not frequent, with an average of just under two disruptions per observation per teacher. A few teachers had almost no disruptions, although one teacher had an average of almost six disruptions per observation. Three-Level Random-Effects Models We estimated four three-level random-effects models, two for each student behavior, to identify the most salient classroom management skills. Next, we estimated fully conditional models to identify the most salient of the three evidence-based classroom management skills.
Of the three classroom management skills included in the models, only BSP was statistically significant and positive, suggesting that increased use of BSP had a corresponding positive impact on student engagement.
Again, BSP was the only significant predictor, with a negative coefficient indicating that more BSP was predictive of fewer student disruptions. Study Findings Classroom management is a critical component of effective instruction and a prerequisite for classrooms hoping to successfully include students with, or at-risk for, EBDs.
Classroom management is also a foundational and critical component of effective multitiered school behavior models, including school-wide positive behavior support and the ISF Barrett et al. Without classroom management, implementation of evidence-based behavioral and mental health interventions for students with EBDs is less likely to be successful or to generalize to their general education classrooms.
Although myriad classroom management skills and practices have been developed, researched, and reviewed, three skills have been identified as evidence-based and are typically included in most classroom management interventions and programs: 1 teacher-directed opportunities to respond TD-OTR ; 2 behavior-specific praise BSP ; and 3 prompting for behavioral expectations, including pre-corrections.
This study has sought to identify which of these three classroom management skills was most salient so as to inform both practice and professional development models about which skill to focus on first. Essentially, our goal was to determine which of the three is the most effective at increasing appropriate classroom behavior during large group instruction.
Results from both the academic engagement and rate of disruptive behavior models suggest that BSP was the only classroom management skill that significantly predicted positive student behavior. Based on the descriptive statistics, the sample of teachers in this study appeared to implement the three classroom management skills at rates greater than those in other studies.
For example, Scott, Alter, and Hirn found that teachers delivered less than one TD-OTR per minute and that their rates of positive feedback were less than 0. However, there was significant variability across the teachers, particularly between the two schools. Results were similar for BSP, with an average of 7. Yet, the average rates of classroom management skills in the Title I school were still much larger than those found by Scott and colleagues Results of this study indicate that BSP was the only significant predictor of student performance after controlling for the other classroom management skills.
This finding does not indicate that increased TD-OTR and prompting for expectations, including pre-corrections, are not important. However, the results do suggest that, for the students in this study, BSP appeared to have a positive and statistically significant effect that was greater than that of the other classroom management skills.
Therefore, when teachers are considering which classroom management skills they should focus on increasing, BSP is an ideal choice.
Similarly, a recent professional development model using a multitiered system of professional development MTS-PD has been developed, which focuses on teaching teachers to implement a single classroom management skill to an a priori level before teaching another classroom management skill.
The findings of this study suggest that starting with BSP may be the best approach to increase teacher download-in because teachers may see greater increases in engagement and decreases in disruptive behavior as a result of increased BSP.
Study Limitations Although all efforts were made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of study results, a number of limitations should be mentioned. First, the study does not include all potential classroom management skills identified in the literature.
However, other relevant skills include error correction, general praise, decreases in negative feedback, high structure, and posting behavioral expectations, as well as behavior intervention systems, including token economies and self-management systems. Therefore, future research should evaluate the relative influence of BSP when other classroom management skills and programs are present.
Second, the authors did not follow individual students across the observations or target students with EBDs. The measured student behaviors represent the classroom average using three five-minute observations of random students per observation. Future research should examine the influence of evidence-based classroom management skills on students with EBDs.
We believe implementation of high-quality classroom management is a prerequisite to increase the likelihood that students with EBDs can remain in the general education classroom, but we also know that classroom management alone may not be enough and that additional function-based interventions will be necessary for those students to remain in the classroom.
We believe that a continuum of classroom management, function-based interventions, and mental health services leveraging the ISF framework Barrett et al. Last, our statistical models were limited by sample size and inclusion of student and teacher characteristics.MOOSES is a direct observation system for collecting real-time event recordings of teacher and student behaviors on either a frequency or duration scale.
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If you say it, mean it. However, other relevant skills include error correction, general praise, decreases in negative feedback, high structure, and posting behavioral expectations, as well as behavior intervention systems, including token economies and self-management systems.
The bottom line is that students cannot learn if they are not engaged and paying attention to instruction. Students discuss and agree on a pattern to show to the class. SettingExpectationsforGroupBehaviorandFocus Another area worth attending to is expecta- tions for how students will interact as they work together.
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