PDF | Incluye índice Incluye bibliografía Contenido: Introducción a las My vision for the Ninth Edition of Organization Theory and Design is to integrate. Edition/Format: eBook: Document: English: 12th ed Daft's best-selling ORGANIZATION THEORY AND DESIGN presents a captivating, compelling snapshot of _ch02_ptg01_pdf; _ch03_ptg01_ pdf;. Organization Theory and Design, Tenth Edition. Richard L. Daft. With the Daft specializes in the study of organization theory and leadership. Professor Daft.

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A team is a permanent committee. A team is used when continuous problems arise between departments and must be coordinated, or when the project is so large that it lasts a period of years. The team resolves problems by mutual adjustment between the departments involved. A liaison role exists in one department and is responsible for coordinating with another department. An example would be a manufacturing engineer who is assigned to the engineering department but is responsible for coordinating changes with manufacturing.

The integrating role is not located in either of the coordinated departments, and reports to a neutral manager. The integrating role is used when the coordination of tasks is large and complex, and involves more than two departments. Integrators often have the title of product manager or brand manager when they are personally responsible for achieving coordination for the product line.

The greatest amount of coordination is provided by the integrating role, because it is a full time task.

Test Bank for Organization Theory and Design 12th Edition by Daft

Next is the team which meets regularly. A task force provides substantial coordination, but only during the period it is in existence. A liaison role provides coordination between two departments on a specific issue relevant to them. As a manager, how would you create an organization with a high degree of relational coordination? I would encourage people to share information freely across departments and interact on a continuous basis to share knowledge and solve problems.

I would train people in the skills needed to interact with one another and resolve cross-functional conflicts, build trust and credibility by showing concern for employees.

I would foster relationships based on shared goals rather than emphasizing the goals of separate departments.. What conditions usually have to be present before an organization should adopt a matrix structure? A functional, product, or hybrid structure is normally best. The special circumstances that are needed before the matrix can succeed are: a dominant competitive issue that has two or more critical elements, such as for both product and functional specializations; the organization task is both complex and uncertain so that high levels of internal coordination are required; economy of scale means the organization may not have enough people or facilities to set up separate product lines, so they need to allocate people across a variety of projects or products.

Colleges offer programs which cut across all departments of the business curricula, including the MBA program, graduate degree programs, and the undergraduate programs. To achieve coordination across programs, the college could appoint program directors with the responsibility to supervise faculty within each academic department that are assigned to their particular program. The faculty, then, have dual responsibilities, to their department and to the program director.

The matrix structure would be appropriate for a college of business if the college wished to achieve coordination across each program it offered. If the college were more interested in functional expertise e. The manager of a consumer products firm said, "We use the brand manager position to train future executives.

Many organizations do use integrator rules, such as brand managers, to train executives. The reason is that brand managers have responsibility without authority. They are responsible for coordinating all relevant tasks that comprise the business whole for a given product or brand, and they have to do it through good interpersonal relationships and persuasion.

Brand managers have to make things happen. They need the same skills required by general managers at upper levels, who don't always rely on the formal hierarchy to get things done. People who can succeed in a brand manager's position often have the characteristics required to succeed in general management. Why do companies using a horizontal structure have cultures that emphasize openness, employee empowerment, and responsibility?

ANSWER: In the horizontal structure, shared tasks and decentralized decision making can occur because power is not concentrated at the top.

With a culture that supports employee empowerment, decentralization can be carried out by informed employees in a meaningful manner.

Describe the virtual network structure. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this structure compared to performing all activities in-house within an organization? ANSWER: In the virtual network structure the firm subcontracts many or most of its major processes to separate companies and coordinates their activities from a small headquarters organization.

Organization theory and design 12th edition pdf

The advantage of a virtual network is that it allows companies to be truly global, drawing on resources worldwide at the same time allowing the company to develop products and services and get them rapidly to market without huge investments. It also allows the company to be more flexible in a rapidly changing environment while reducing costs. A final strength is reduced administrative overhead. These advantages are lacking when an organization performs all activities in-house.

However, the disadvantages of the virtual network structure include lack of hands-on control of activities and employees, more time to manage relationships and conflicts with partners, risk of a partner failing, and weak employee loyalty and corporate culture. By contrast, an in-house organization does not have these disadvantages. Show an actual chart, and discuss how the structure reflects strengths and weaknesses. Identify the range of organization charts developed for the range of organizations given in the exercise.

Next, find the range of organization charts developed for each specific type of organization. If different options were proposed for that organization, would one option likely be more successful than another? In what ways? This is an excellent case to give students an opportunity to apply concepts from the chapter. The next case on Aquarius Advertising Agency requires application of more advanced concepts, so be sure to present the two cases in sequence.

Give students a set of discussion questions, such as the following, when you assign this case so that their reading of the case will be productive. What effect did it have had for store meat and produce managers to report to district specialists?

What structural problems contributed to the chain being slow to adapt to change? Why was cooperation within stores so poor? How would the proposed reorganization address the problems addressed in each question above? What disadvantages might emerge over time with the proposed reorganization?

Given the advantages and disadvantages of each of the two structures, which would you adopt, and why? Remember that no structure has only advantages, so if your discussion begins to take on that tone, broaden the input for a more well-rounded approach. Analyze Aquarius with respect to the five contextual variables. How would you describe the environment, goals, culture, size, and technology for Aquarius?

ANSWER: Aquarius is a middle-sized firm operating in a relatively unstable environment, particularly because in the industry it was common to lose or gain clients quickly because of consumer behavior changes or product innovation, sometimes with no advance warning. The technology is predominantly non-routine because of the emphasis on creativity and art. The structure is functional with full-time integrators who provide horizontal linkage.

The goals of the firm are to be creative and to satisfy customers. Design a new organization structure that takes into consideration the contextual variables in the case and the information flows. ANSWER: You may give students a hint of the general approaches that could be taken: One approach would be to treat account managers as project managers; another general approach would be to design a product structure with departments reporting to each account executive.

Ask students to draw their specific alternatives on the board.

A hybrid form of structure would be one specific possibility, with account executives reporting to client group vice-presidents comparable to the "product" form , and most functional departments such as research, media, merchandising, copy department and art department reporting to each of the account executives.

The functional heads who would still report directly to the president would probably be legal counsel, finance, and personnel. The structure matches the uncertainty of the environment, and would enable the organization to allow for unit or customer-driven adaptation to changes.

There is high coordination across functions relative to any given customer's account, necessary for the projects being designed. The emphasis is on client satisfaction with vertical and horizontal information flows possible by grouping together the individuals who communicate with one another.

Would a matrix structure be feasible for Aquarius? Why or why not? ANSWER: To determine whether a matrix structure is feasible now, or will be feasible in the future, students should examine the requirements for a matrix. Is there a dual domain competitive issue? Perhaps, in this case. Service and creativity require technical competence within each function, and yet at the same time, effective coordination across functions.

Is the environment uncertain? Overall, there is potential for rapid environmental change. Wilson, Haloid s longtime chairman and president, created a positive, people-oriented culture continued by his successor, David Kearns, who steered Xerox until The Xerox culture and its dedicated employees sometimes called Xeroids were the envy of the corporate world. In addition to values of fairness and respect, Xerox s culture emphasized risk taking and employee involvement.

Wilson wrote the following for early recruiting materials: We seek people who are willing to accept risk, willing to try new ideas and have ideas of their own Xerox continued to use these words in its recruiting efforts, but the culture the words epitomize had eroded.

Leaders no doubt knew that the company needed to move beyond copiers to sustain its growth, but they found it difficult to look beyond the 70 percent gross profit margins of the copier. Xerox s Palo Alto Research Center PARC , established in , became known around the world for innovation many of the most revolutionary technologies in the computer industry, including the personal computer, graphical user interface, Ethernet, and laser printer, were invented at PARC.


But the copier bureaucracy, or Burox as it came to be known, blinded Xerox leaders to the enormous potential of these innovations. While Xerox was plodding along selling copy machines, younger, smaller, and hungrier companies were developing PARC technologies into tremendous moneymaking products and services.

The dangers of Burox became dramatically clear when the company s xerography patents began expiring. Suddenly, Japanese rivals such as Canon and Ricoh were selling copiers at the cost it took Xerox to make them. Market share declined from 95 percent to 13 percent by And with no new products to make up the difference, the company had to fight hard to cut costs and reclaim market share by committing to Japanese-style techniques and total quality management. Through the strength of his leadership, CEO Kearns was able to rally the troops and rejuvenate the company by However, he also set Xerox on a path to future disaster.

Seeing a need to diversify, Kearns moved the company into insurance and financial services on a large scale. When he turned leadership over to Paul Allaire in , Xerox s balance sheet was crippled by billions of dollars in insurance liabilities.

At the same time, he initiated a mixed strategy of cost cutting and new-product introductions to get the stodgy company moving again. Xerox had success with a line of digital presses and new high-speed digital copiers, but it fumbled again by underestimating the threat of the inkjet printer. By the time Xerox introduced its own line of desktop printers, the game was already over. Desktop printers, combined with increasing use of the Internet and , cut heavily into Xerox s sales of copiers.

People didn t need to make as many photocopies, but there was a huge increase in the number of documents being created and shared.

Rebranding Xerox as The Document Company, Allaire pushed into the digital era, hoping to remake Xerox in the image of the rejuvenated IBM, offering not just boxes machines but complete document management solutions. Thoman came to Xerox as president, chief operating officer, and eventually CEO, amid high hopes that the company could regain the stature of its glory years. Only 13 months later, as revenues and the stock price continued to slide, he was fired by Allaire, who had remained as Xerox chairman.

Outsiders, however, believe the failure had much more to do with Xerox s dysfunctional culture. The culture was already slow to adapt, and some say that under Allaire it became almost totally paralyzed by politics. Thoman was brought in to shake things up, but when he tried, the old guard rebelled.

A management struggle developed, with the outsider Thoman and a few allies on one side lined up against Allaire and his group of insiders who were accustomed to doing things the Xeroid way.

Recognized for his knowledge, business experience, and intensity, Thoman was also considered to be somewhat haughty 26 Chapter 1: Organizations and Organization Theory 5 and unapproachable.

He was never able to exert substantial influence with key managers and employees, nor to gain the support of board members, who continued to rally behind Allaire.

The failed CEO succession illustrates the massive challenge of reinventing a century-old company. By the time Thoman arrived, Xerox had been going through various rounds of restructuring, cost cutting, rejuvenating, and reinventing for nearly two decades, but little had really changed.

Many believe Thoman tried to do too much too soon. He saw the urgency for change but was unable to convey that urgency to others within the company and inspire them to take the difficult journey real transformation requires. Others doubted that anyone could fix Xerox, because the culture had become too dysfunctional and politicized. There was always an in-crowd and an out-crowd, says one former executive. They change the branches, but when you look closely, the same old monkeys are sitting in the trees.

In August , Allaire turned over the CEO reins to the popular twentyfour-year veteran, who had started at Xerox as a copier saleswoman and worked her way up the hierarchy. Despite her insider status, Mulcahy proved that she was more than willing to challenge the status quo at Xerox. Since she took over, Mulcahy has surprised skeptical analysts, stockholders, and employees by engineering one of the most extraordinary business turnarounds in recent history.

How did she do it? One key success factor was giving people vision and hope. Mulcahy wrote a fictitious Wall Street Journal article describing Xerox five years in the future, outlining the things Xerox wanted to accomplish as if they had already been achieved and presenting the company as a thriving, forward-thinking organization.

And although few people thought Mulcahy would take the tough actions Xerox needed to survive, she turned out to be a strong decision maker. She quickly launched a turnaround plan that included massive cost cutting and closing of several money-losing operations, including the division she had previously headed. She was brutally honest about the good, the bad, and the ugly of the company s situation, as one employee put it, but she also showed that she cared about what happened to employees.

After major layoffs, she walked the halls to tell people she was sorry and let them vent their anger. She personally negotiated the settlement of a long investigation into fraudulent accounting practices, insisting that her personal involvement was necessary to signal a new commitment to ethical business practices and corporate social responsibility. She appealed directly to creditors begging them not to pull the plug until a new management team could make needed changes.

Mulcahy transferred much of production to outside contractors and refocused Xerox on innovation and service. Two areas she refused to cut were research and development and customer contact.

Since , Xerox has introduced more than new products and moved into high-growth areas such as document management services, IT consulting, and digital press technology. A series of acquisitions enabled the company to enter new markets and expand its base of small- and medium-sized business customers.

Mulcahy has also responded to global stakeholders with a firm commitment to human rights and sustainable business practices. By doing the right thing for our stakeholders and the global community, we re also doing what is right for our business, she said.

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Cancel Forgot your password?The city manager of Sandy Springs says that the key is in the art of drafting the right contracts Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths include the ability to obtain talent and resources worldwide, achieving scale and reach without huge investments, being highly flexible and response to changing needs, and reducing administrative overhead costs.

Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. Many organizations do use integrator rules, such as brand managers, to train executives. There is high coordination across functions relative to any given customer's account, necessary for the projects being designed.

What structural problems contributed to the chain being slow to adapt to change? Weaknesses include the fact that dual authority, particularly in the balanced matrix, can be frustrating and confusing to employees.

Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es. It is a test of how well Toyota can decentralize decision making.